You just mentioned them! I love LNURL NFC payment cards. The Bolt card is pretty dope!
Those are the things we need, offline POS terminals, merchants will be key drivers if consumer adoption is to grow.
One other thing that needs to be developed to make lightning more usable in these areas is finding ways to connect it to USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data). This will enable millions of people using feature phones to use lightning. It's already the biggest way people use mobile money on the continent.
I think the current NFC cards still needs a lot of improvement. Especially in the field of authorisation. At this moment there is no way to check/approve the amount that will be deducted from the card. I think if a solution is found for this, it can go fast with the adoption.
What is needed to connect Lightning to USSD. Is this something telecom providers need to support? Or is this something that (for example) Bitnob can build?
Wouldn't it be nicer if there was a Mash network available for Lightning payments? I thought that goTenna and Blockstream (https://txtenna.com) are working on this. But than you first need to invest a little bit in hardware before you can use it.
Yes the auth part needs improvements. I think the folks at coincorner have a way out, though not publicly released.
For lightning to work with USSD, it's more of a regulatory than technical issue. It should be pretty easy hacking a USSD <> Lightning connector.
Mesh networks should definitely be a thing in the future, we need more hardware down here
On SN a message about a USSD service for Lightning.
USSD service Machankura
On SN: Machankura - LN custodial wallet accessible via any phone in six African countries